Biological buffers - tips and buffer tables
Biological buffers - tips and buffer tables

Buffers at wikipedia - New! - Story of the Beckman pH meter

Good buffers at wikipedia - Good reflects

Picture of Norman E Good, developer of biological buffers

Sigma's buffer page - Properties of reagent grade acids and bases

Sigma buffer tables (tris, phosphate, citrate)

Research Organics buffer table - Citrate buffers

Jovin buffer table, Sorenson's buffer table - phosphate buffers

Caution on phosphate and citrate buffers

Electrophoresis buffers, Tables - Misc. buffers - Exponent tables

Spreadsheet titration - New! Properties of borax (primary pH standard)

Laemmli buffers - weigh and pour recipes (simple, reproducible)

Ammonium acetate as a buffer

The glass electrode - a caution

History of acids and bases - The pH scale

A history of acidity, GCSE notes on acids and bases

Making buffers, Buffer "tricks"

If you work with biological buffers, they're well worth understanding. Spreadsheets offer convenient calculation and visualization. I recommend Chapter 8 of Robert T Scopes' Protein Purification, 2nd ed Springer Verlag, 1987 for a brief, but extensive introduction.

For a thorough and classical treatment of acids, bases and buffers see Biophysical Chemistry, Edsall and Wyman, Academic Pr, 1958

For buffer pKas and recipes see Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control, D.D.Perrin and Boyd Dempsey, Chapman and Hall, 1974 (out of print) - find a library which has it.